The relationship between the state and religion in China has long been a complicated one. More recently, the twin forces of globalization and modernization have reshaped both the practice and understanding of religion in China. Meanwhile, religion poses a number of problems for the atheist Chinese Communist Party as it attempts to manage a diffused, non-exclusive, and pluralistic religiosity among the populace. We have invited scholars to discuss these and related issues, and to offer readers their visions of the state of religion in China, past, present, and future. In conjunction with this discussion, we have also published a companion piece: What is religion in China? A brief history.